Springer MS, Guerrero-Juarez CF, Huelsmann M, Collin MA, Danil K, McGowen MR, Won Oh J, Ramos R, Hiller M, Plikus MV, Gatesy J. Genomic and anatomical comparisons of skin support independent adaptation to life in water by cetaceans and hippos. Current Biology

Wang LF, Gamage AM, Chan WOY, Hiller M, Teeling EC. Decoding bat immunity: the need for a coordinated research approach. Nature Reviews Immunology., 2021

Juliana G. Roscito, Kaushikaram Subramanian, Ronald Naumann, Mihail Sarov, Anna Shevchenko, Aliona Bogdanova, Thomas Kurth, Leo Foerster, Moritz Kreysing, Michael Hiller
Recapitulating evolutionary divergence in a single cis-regulatory element is sufficient to cause expression changes of the lens gene Tdrd7.
Mol Biol Evol, Art. No. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msaa212 (2020)

Joana Damas, Graham M Hughes, Kathleen C Keough, Corrie A Painter, Nicole S Persky, Marco Corbo, Michael Hiller, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Andreas R Pfenning, Huabin Zhao, Diane P Genereux, Ross Swofford, Katherine S Pollard, Oliver A Ryder, Martin T Nweeia, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Emma Teeling, Elinor K Karlsson, Harris A Lewin
Broad host range of SARS-CoV-2 predicted by comparative and structural analysis of ACE2 in vertebrates.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., Art. No. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2010146117 (2020)

David Jebb, Zixia Huang, Martin Pippel, Graham M Hughes, Ksenia Lavrichenko, Paolo Devanna, Sylke Winkler, Lars S Jermiin, Emilia C Skirmuntt, Aris Katzourakis, Lucy Burkitt-Gray, David A Ray, Kevin F. Sullivan, Juliana G. Roscito, Bogdan Kirilenko, Liliana M Dávalos, Angelique P Corthals, Megan L Power, Gareth Jones, Roger D Ransome, Dina K N Dechmann, Andrea G Locatelli, Sébastien J Puechmaille, Olivier Fedrigo, Erich D Jarvis, Michael Hiller, Sonja Vernes, Eugene W Myers, Emma Teeling
Six reference-quality genomes reveal evolution of bat adaptations.
Nature, 583(7817) 578-584 (2020)

Virag Sharma, Nikolai Hecker, Felix Walther, Heiko Stuckas, Michael Hiller
Convergent Losses of TLR5 Suggest Altered Extracellular Flagellin Detection in Four Mammalian Lineages.
Mol Biol Evol, 37(7) 1847-1854 (2020)

Loreen Knöbel, Corinna Breusing, Till Bayer, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller, Frank Melzner, Heiko Stuckas
Comparative de novo assembly and annotation of mantle tissue transcriptomes from the Mytilus edulis species complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. trossulus)
Mar Genomics, 51 Art. No. 100700 (2020)

Arnaud Rondelet, Yu-Chih Lin, Divya Singh, Arthur T Porfetye, Harish C Thakur, Andreas Hecker, Pia Brinkert, Nadine Schmidt, Shweta Bendre, Franziska Müller, Lisa Mazul, Per Widlund, Tanja Bange, Michael Hiller, Ingrid R Vetter, Alexander W. Bird
Clathrin’s adaptor interaction sites are repurposed to stabilize microtubules during mitosis.
J Cell Biol, 219(2) Art. No. e201907083 (2020)

Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Losses of human disease-associated genes in placental mammals
NAR Genomics and Bioinformatics, 2(1) Art. No. doi: 10.1093/nargab/lqz012 (2020)

Martin Pippel, David Jebb, Franziska Patzold, Sylke Winkler, Heiko Vogel, Gene Myers, Michael Hiller, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
A highly contiguous genome assembly of the bat hawkmoth Hyles vespertilio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).
GigaScience, 9(1) Art. No. giaa001 (2020)

Nikolai Hecker, Michael Hiller
A genome alignment of 120 mammals highlights ultraconserved element variability and placenta-associated enhancers.
GigaScience, 9(1) Art. No. giz159 (2020)
Ekaterina Osipova, Nikolai Hecker, Michael Hiller
RepeatFiller newly identifies megabases of aligning repetitive sequences and improves annotations of conserved non-exonic elements.
GigaScience, 8(11) Art. No. giz132 (2019)

Bogdan Kirilenko, Lee R Hagey, Stephen Barnes, Charles N Falany, Michael Hiller
Evolutionary Analysis of Bile Acid-Conjugating Enzymes Reveals a Complex Duplication and Reciprocal Loss History.
Genome Biol Evol, 11(11) 3256-3268 (2019)

Juliana G. Roscito, Michael Hiller
Methods to Detect and Associate Divergence in Cis-Regulatory Elements to Phenotypic Divergence.
In: Evolution, Origin of Life, Concepts and Methods . (Eds.) Pierre Pontarotti,Cham,Springer International Publishing (2019),113-134 Ch. 6

Matthias Huelsmann, Nikolai Hecker, Mark S Springer, John Gatesy, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Genes lost during the transition from land to water in cetaceans highlight genomic changes associated with aquatic adaptations.
Sci Adv, 5(9) Art. No. eaaw6671 (2019)

Nikolai Hecker, Ulla Lächele, Heiko Stuckas, Peter Giere, Michael Hiller
Convergent vomeronasal system reduction in mammals coincides with convergent losses of calcium signalling and odorant-degrading genes.
Mol. Ecol., 28(16) 3656-3668 (2019)

Björn Langer, Michael Hiller
TFforge utilizes large-scale binding site divergence to identify transcriptional regulators involved in phenotypic differences.
Nucleic Acids Res, 47(4) Art. No. e19 (2019)

Nikolai Hecker, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Convergent gene losses illuminate metabolic and physiological changes in herbivores and carnivores.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 116(8) 3036-3041 (2019)

Mark S Springer, Christopher A Emerling, John Gatesy, Jason Randall, Matthew A Collin, Nikolai Hecker, Michael Hiller, Frédéric Delsuc
Odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) is inactivated in toothless/enamelless placental mammals and toothed whales.
BMC Evol Biol, 19(1) Art. No. 31 (2019)

Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Coding Exon-Structure Aware Realigner (CESAR): Utilizing Genome Alignments for Comparative Gene Annotation.
Methods Mol Biol, 1962 179-191 (2019)
Juliana G. Roscito, Katrin Sameith, Martin Pippel, Kees-Jan Francoijs, Sylke Winkler, Andreas Dahl, Georg Papoutsoglou, Gene Myers, Michael Hiller
The genome of the tegu lizard Salvator merianae: combining Illumina, PacBio, and optical mapping data to generate a highly contiguous assembly.
GigaScience, 7(12) Art. No. giy141 (2018)

Björn Langer, Juliana G. Roscito, Michael Hiller
REforge Associates Transcription Factor Binding Site Divergence in Regulatory Elements with Phenotypic Differences between Species.
Mol Biol Evol, 35(12) 3027-3040 (2018)

Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Loss of Enzymes in the Bile Acid Synthesis Pathway Explains Differences in Bile Composition among Mammals.
Genome Biol Evol, 10(12) 3211-3217 (2018)

Juliana G. Roscito, Katrin Sameith, Genis Parra, Bjoern Langer, Andreas Petzold, Claudia Moebius, Marc Bickle, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Michael Hiller
Phenotype loss is associated with widespread divergence of the gene regulatory landscape in evolution.
Nat Commun, 9(1) Art. No. 4737 (2018)

David Jebb, Michael Hiller
Recurrent loss of HMGCS2 shows that ketogenesis is not essential for the evolution of large mammalian brains.
Elife, 7 Art. No. e38906 (2018)

Jun Hoe Lee, Kevin M Lewis, Timothy W Moural, Bogdan Kirilenko, Barbara Borgonovo, Gisa Prange, Manfred Koessl, Stefan Huggenberger, ChulHee Kang, Michael Hiller
Molecular parallelism in fast-twitch muscle proteins in echolocating mammals
Sci Adv, 4(9) Art. No. eaat9660 (2018)

Jana Královicová, Ivana Ševcíková, Eva Stejskalová, Mina Obuca, Michael Hiller, David R. Stanek, Igor Vorechovský
PUF60-activated exons uncover altered 3′ splice-site selection by germline missense mutations in a single RRM.
Nucleic Acids Res, 46(12) 6166-6187 (2018)

Martin Raden, Syed M Ali, Omer S Alkhnbashi, Anke Busch, Fabrizio Costa, Jason A Davis, Florian Eggenhofer, Rick Gelhausen, Jens Georg, Steffen Heyne, Michael Hiller, Kousik Kundu, Robert Kleinkauf, Steffen C Lott, Mostafa M Mohamed, Alexander Mattheis, Milad Miladi, Andreas S Richter, Sebastian Will, Joachim Wolff, Patrick R Wright, Rolf Backofen
Freiburg RNA tools: a central online resource for RNA-focused research and teaching.
Nucleic Acids Res, 46(W1) 25-29 (2018)

Virag Sharma, Thomas Lehmann, Heiko Stuckas, Liane Funke, Michael Hiller
Loss of RXFP2 and INSL3 genes in Afrotheria shows that testicular descent is the ancestral condition in placental mammals.
PLoS Biol, 16(6) Art. No. e2005293 (2018)

Virag Sharma, Nikolai Hecker, Juliana G. Roscito, Leo Foerster, Björn Langer, Michael Hiller
A genomics approach reveals insights into the importance of gene losses for mammalian adaptations.
Nat Commun, 9(1) Art. No. 1215 (2018)

Marta Florio, Michael Heide, Anneline Pinson, Holger Brandl, Mareike Albert, Sylke Winkler, Pauline Wimberger, Wieland B. Huttner, Michael Hiller
Evolution and cell-type specificity of human-specific genes preferentially expressed in progenitors of fetal neocortex.
Elife, 7 Art. No. e32332 (2018)

Markus Grohme, Siegfried Schloissnig, Andrei Rozanski, Martin Pippel, George Robert Young, Sylke Winkler, Holger Brandl, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Sean Powell, Michael Hiller, Eugene Myers, Jochen Rink
The genome of Schmidtea mediterranea and the evolution of core cellular mechanisms.
Nature, 554(7690) 56-61 (2018)

Sergej Nowoshilow, Siegfried Schloissnig, Jifeng Fei, Andreas Dahl, Andy W C Pang, Martin Pippel, Sylke Winkler, Alex R Hastie, George Young, Juliana G. Roscito, Francisco Falcon, Dunja Knapp, Sean Powell, Alfredo Cruz, Han Cao, Bianca Habermann, Michael Hiller, Elly M. Tanaka, Eugene W Myers
The axolotl genome and the evolution of key tissue formation regulators.
Nature, 554(7690) 50-55 (2018)
Virag Sharma, Peter Schwede, Michael Hiller
CESAR 2.0 substantially improves speed and accuracy of comparative gene annotation.
Bioinformatics, 33(24) 3985-3987 (2017)

Nikolai Hecker, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Transition to an Aquatic Habitat Permitted the Repeated Loss of the Pleiotropic KLK8 Gene in Mammals.
Genome Biol Evol, 9(11) 3179-3188 (2017)

Jun Hoe Lee, Michael Hiller
Genome-Wide Screens for Molecular Convergent Evolution in Mammals
In: Evolutionary Biology: Self/Nonself Evolution, Species and Complex Traits Evolution, Methods and Concepts . (Eds.) Pierre Pontarotti,Cham,Springer International Publishing (2017),297-312

Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Increased alignment sensitivity improves the usage of genome alignments for comparative gene annotation.
Nucleic Acids Res, 45(14) 8369-8377 (2017)

Hernando Suarez, Björn Langer, Pradnya Ladde, Michael Hiller
chainCleaner improves genome alignment specificity and sensitivity.
Bioinformatics, 33(11) 1596-1603 (2017)

Katrin Sameith, Juliana G. Roscito, Michael Hiller
Iterative error correction of long sequencing reads maximizes accuracy and improves contig assembly.
Brief Bioinform, 18(1) 1-8 (2017)
Marta Florio, Takashi Namba, Svante Pääbo, Michael Hiller, Wieland B. Huttner
A single splice site mutation in human-specific ARHGAP11B causes basal progenitor amplification
Sci Adv, 2(12) Art. No. e1601941 (2016)

Xavier Prudent, Genis Parra, Peter Schwede, Juliana G. Roscito, Michael Hiller
Controlling for Phylogenetic Relatedness and Evolutionary Rates Improves the Discovery of Associations Between Species’ Phenotypic and Genomic Differences.
Mol Biol Evol, 33(8) 2135-2150 (2016)

Virag Sharma, Anas Elghafari, Michael Hiller
Coding exon-structure aware realigner (CESAR) utilizes genome alignments for accurate comparative gene annotation.
Nucleic Acids Res, 44(11) Art. No. e103 (2016)
Kathrin Reichwald, Andreas Petzold, Philipp Koch, Bryan R Downie, Nils Hartmann, Stefan Pietsch, Mario Baumgart, Domitille Chalopin, Marius Felder, Martin Bens, Arne Sahm, Karol Szafranski, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Ivan Arisi, Anja Weise, Samarth S Bhatt, Virag Sharma, Johann M Kraus, Florian Schmid, Steffen Priebe, Thomas Liehr, Matthias Görlach, Manuel E Than, Michael Hiller, Hans A Kestler, Jean-Nicolas Volff, Manfred Schartl, Alessandro Cellerino, Christoph Englert, Matthias Platzer
Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution and Aging from the Genome of a Short-Lived Fish.
Cell, 163(6) 1527-1538 (2015)

Julieta Aprea, Mathias Lesche, Simone Massalini, Silvia Prenninger, Dimitra Alexopoulou, Andreas Dahl, Michael Hiller, Federico Calegari
Identification and expression patterns of novel long non-coding RNAs in neural progenitors of the developing mammalian cortex
Neurogenesis, 2(1) Art. No. e995524 (2015)

Karol Szafranski, Claudia Fritsch, Frank Schumann, Lisa Siebel, Rileen Sinha, Jochen Hampe, Michael Hiller, Christoph Englert, Klaus Huse, Matthias Platzer
Physiological state co-regulates thousands of mammalian mRNA splicing events at tandem splice sites and alternative exons.
Nucleic Acids Res, 42(14) 8895-8904 (2014)

Julieta Aprea, Silvia Prenninger, Martina Dori, Tanay Ghosh, Laura Sebastian Monasor, Elke Wessendorf, Sara Zocher, Simone Massalini, Dimitra Alexopoulou, Mathias Lesche, Andreas Dahl, Matthias Groszer, Michael Hiller, Federico Calegari
Transcriptome sequencing during mouse brain development identifies long non-coding RNAs functionally involved in neurogenic commitment.
EMBO J, 32(24) 3145-3160 (2013)

Michael Hiller, Saatvik Agarwal, James H Notwell, Ravi Parikh, Harendra Guturu, Aaron M Wenger, Gill Bejerano
Computational methods to detect conserved non-genic elements in phylogenetically isolated genomes: application to zebrafish.
Nucleic Acids Res, 41(15) Art. No. e151 (2013)

Manli Shen, Stanislav Bellaousov, Michael Hiller, Pierre de la Grange, Trevor P Creamer, Orit Malina, Ruth Sperling, David H Mathews, Peter Stoilov, Stefan Stamm
Pyrvinium pamoate changes alternative splicing of the serotonin receptor 2C by influencing its RNA structure.
Nucleic Acids Res, 41(6) 3819-3832 (2013)

Michael Hiller
Vom Phänotyp zum Genotyp : Forward Genomics – ein neuer Ansatz der vergleichenden Sequenzanalyse
Biologie in unserer Zeit, 43(1) 34-39 (2013)
Michael Hiller, Bruce T Schaar, Gill Bejerano
Hundreds of conserved non-coding genomic regions are independently lost in mammals.
Nucleic Acids Res, 40(22) 11463-11476 (2012)

Michael Hiller, Bruce T Schaar, Vahan B Indjeian, David M Kingsley, Lee R Hagey, Gill Bejerano
A “Forward Genomics” Approach Links Genotype to Phenotype using Independent Phenotypic Losses among Related Species.
Cell Rep, 2(4) 817-823 (2012)

Michael Hiller
Analysis of pre-mRNA secondary structures and alternative splicing
In: Alternative pre-mRNA splicing : theory and protocols. (Eds.) Stefan Stamm, Chris Smith, Reinhard Lührmann,Weinheim,Wiley-Blackwell (2012),575-580

Dominic Rose, Michael Hiller, Katharina Schutt, Jörg Hackermüller, Rolf Backofen, Peter F Stadler
Computational discovery of human coding and non-coding transcripts with conserved splice sites.
Bioinformatics, 27(14) 1894-1900 (2011)

Zhaiyi Zhang, Dominik Theler, Katarzyna H Kaminska, Michael Hiller, Pierre de la Grange, Rainer Pudimat, Ilona Rafalska, Bettina Heinrich, Janusz M Bujnicki, Frédéric H-T Allain, Stefan Stamm
The YTH domain is a novel RNA binding domain.
J Biol Chem, 285(19) 14701-14710 (2010)

Cory Y McLean, Dave Bristor, Michael Hiller, Shoa L Clarke, Bruce T Schaar, Craig B Lowe, Aaron M Wenger, Gill Bejerano
GREAT improves functional interpretation of cis-regulatory regions.
Nat Biotechnol, 28(5) 495-501 (2010)

Rileen Sinha, Thorsten Lenser, Niels Jahn, Ulrike Gausmann, Swetlana Friedel, Karol Szafranski, Klaus Huse, Philip Rosenstiel, Jochen Hampe, Stefan Schuster, Michael Hiller, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
TassDB2 – A comprehensive database of subtle alternative splicing events.
BMC Bioinformatics, 11 Art. No. 216 (2010)
Michael Hiller, Sven Findeiss, Sandro Lein, Manja Marz, Claudia Nickel, Dominic Rose, Christine Schulz, Rolf Backofen, Sonja J Prohaska, Gunter Reuter, Peter F Stadler
Conserved introns reveal novel transcripts in Drosophila melanogaster.
Genome Res, 19(7) 1289-1300 (2009)

Rileen Sinha, Swetlana Nikolajewa, Karol Szafranski, Michael Hiller, Niels Jahn, Klaus Huse, Matthias Platzer, Rolf Backofen
Accurate prediction of NAGNAG alternative splicing.
Nucleic Acids Res, 37(11) 3569-3579 (2009)

Bettina Heinrich, Zhaiyi Zhang, Oleg Raitskin, Michael Hiller, Natalya Benderska, Annette M Hartmann, Laurent Bracco, David Elliott, Shani Ben-Ari, Hermona Soreq, Joseph Sperling, Ruth Sperling, Stefan Stamm
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G regulates splice site selection by binding to CC(A/C)-rich regions in pre-mRNA.
J Biol Chem, 284(21) 14303-14315 (2009)
Michael Hiller, Matthias Platzer
Widespread and subtle: alternative splicing at short-distance tandem sites.
Trends Genet, 24(5) 246-255 (2008)

Michael Hiller, Karol Szafranski, Rileen Sinha, Klaus Huse, Swetlana Nikolajewa, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
Assessing the fraction of short-distance tandem splice sites under purifying selection.
RNA, 14(4) 616-629 (2008)

Michael Hiller, Karol Szafranski, Klaus Huse, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
Selection against tandem splice sites affecting structured protein regions.
BMC Evol Biol, 8 89-89 (2008)

Rileen Sinha, Michael Hiller, Rainer Pudimat, Ulrike Gausmann, Matthias Platzer, Rolf Backofen
Improved identification of conserved cassette exons using Bayesian networks.
BMC Bioinformatics, 9 477-477 (2008)

Klaus Huse, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Philip Rosenstiel, Karol Szafranski, Michael Hiller, Jochen Hampe, Kerstin Junker, Jorg Schubert, Stefan Schreiber, Gerd Birkenmeier, Michael Krawczak, Matthias Platzer
Genetic variants of the copy number polymorphic beta-defensin locus are associated with sporadic prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol, 29(2) 83-92 (2008)

Stefanie Schindler, Karol Szafranski, Michael Hiller, Gul Shad Ali, Saiprasad G Palusa, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer, Anireddy S N Reddy
Alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana SR and SR-related protein-coding genes.
BMC Genomics, 9 159-159 (2008)
Michael Hiller, Zhaiyi Zhang, Rolf Backofen, Stefan Stamm
Pre-mRNA secondary structures influence exon recognition.
PLoS Genet, 3(11) 204-204 (2007)

Swetlana Nikolajewa, Rainer Pudimat, Michael Hiller, Matthias Platzer, Rolf Backofen
BioBayesNet: a web server for feature extraction and Bayesian network modeling of biological sequence data.
Nucleic Acids Res, 35(Web Server issue) 688-693 (2007)

Karol Szafranski, Stefanie Schindler, Stefan Taudien, Michael Hiller, Klaus Huse, Niels Jahn, Stefan Schreiber, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
Violating the splicing rules: TG dinucleotides function as alternative 3′ splice sites in U2-dependent introns.
Genome Biol, 8(8) 154-154 (2007)

Michael Hiller, Swetlana Nikolajewa, Klaus Huse, Karol Szafranski, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schuster, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
TassDB: a database of alternative tandem splice sites.
Nucleic Acids Res, 35(Database issue) 188-192 (2007)
Michael Hiller, Karol Szafranski, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
Alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors: simply noise or noise and more?
PLoS Genet, 2(11) 207-208 (2006)

Matthias Platzer, Michael Hiller, Karol Szafranski, Niels Jahn, Jochen Hampe, Stefan Schreiber, Rolf Backofen, Klaus Huse
Sequencing errors or SNPs at splice-acceptor guanines in dbSNP?
Nat Biotechnol, 24(9) 1068-1070 (2006)

Michael Hiller, Klaus Huse, Karol Szafranski, Niels Jahn, Jochen Hampe, Stefan Schreiber, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NAGNAG acceptors are highly predictive for variations of alternative splicing.
Am J Hum Genet, 78(2) 291-302 (2006)

Michael Hiller, Rainer Pudimat, Anke Busch, Rolf Backofen
Using RNA secondary structures to guide sequence motif finding towards single-stranded regions.
Nucleic Acids Res, 34(17) 117-117 (2006)

Michael Hiller, Klaus Huse, Karol Szafranski, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
Phylogenetically widespread alternative splicing at unusual GYNGYN donors.
Genome Biol, 7(7) 65-65 (2006)
Michael Hiller, Klaus Huse, Matthias Platzer, Rolf Backofen
Non-EST based prediction of exon skipping and intron retention events using Pfam information.
Nucleic Acids Res, 33(17) 5611-5621 (2005)

Michael Hiller, Klaus Huse, Matthias Platzer, Rolf Backofen
Creation and disruption of protein features by alternative splicing — a novel mechanism to modulate function.
Genome Biol, 6(7) 58-58 (2005)
Michael Hiller, Klaus Huse, Karol Szafranski, Niels Jahn, Jochen Hampe, Stefan Schreiber, Rolf Backofen, Matthias Platzer
Widespread occurrence of alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors contributes to proteome plasticity.
Nat Genet, 36(12) 1255-1257 (2004)

Michael Hiller, Rolf Backofen, Stephan Heymann, Anke Busch, Timo Mika Glaesser, Johann-Christoph Freytag
Efficient prediction of alternative splice forms using protein domain homology.
In Silico Biol, 4(2) 195-208 (2004)